Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Abelard And Heloise The twelfth century was divided into two phases: Early Middle Ages or Dark Ages and the High Middle Ages. It's during the High Middle Ages when things started to take a turn both mentally and physically. Churches developed more stamina and papal bureaucracy was created. The government was revived. Urbanization increased and most of all a sudden increase was brought in cultural revitalization and courtly love was an important aspect of this awakening. Courtly love is defined as humility, courtesy, adultery and religion of love. This is what I believe Abelards's and Heloise's relationship was based on in Abelard's Historia Calamitatum and his letters to Heloise. Abelard was a well-known figure of the twelfth century that taught dialectic philosophy. Abelard was in his late thirties when he first met Heloise in Paris. And it was her knowledge and gift for writing letters, which was so rare in women at the times that attracted Abelard to her. Heloise was the niece of one of the Cannons. She was about seventeen when she met Abelard; this was not considered a big deal for back then it was pretty common to have big age difference in marriages. Heloise was considered atypical because women were rarely educated at all back then. She was strong willed and she had a pretty good sense of logic and this is what brought them together. Heloise struck a deal with Heloise's uncle to educate her and gained full access to her pleasures. Their relationship encompassed the maximum in personal freedom. "Her studies allowed us to withdraw in private, as love desired and then with our books open before us, more words of our love than of our reading passed between us, and more kissing than teaching. (Radice 67). Later Heloise became pregnant and Abelard could not successfully sidestep the rules of the society because the society of a time just wouldn't accept a premarital sexual affair. I believe Abelard and Heloise got engaged in the first "modern" love affair. Because they enjoyed each other both sexually and intellectually, just as how it's perceived in today's world. Though Heloise's attitude towards marriage and love was quite different from the other women of the twelfth century. She resisted the idea of marriage because she thought it was more of an economical and political idea than real love and that she would rather be called a whore or a mistress instead of a wife. (Radice 74). This tells us about her individuality and also that she didn't consider marriage part of love unlike most of the women of her time. Love is portrayed in many forms in this book. Like for example love of learning. The first thing Abelard does in his writing of Historia Calamitatum is portray himself as an individual just like Heloise. He denounced the popular and glorious life of a soldier and in order to study words and philosophy. I believe in writing this he shows his clever and different way of thinking by referring to dialectic. "I chose the weapons of dialectic to all the other teachings of philosophy and armed with these, I chose the conflict of disputation instead of trophies of war." (Radice 58). In the beginning Abelard's and Heloise's relationship was based heavily on passionate love. So later after their entry into religion, Heloise accused Abelard of lust rather than love for her, which I believe, is not true. "It was desire, not affection which bound you to me, the flame of lust rather than love. This is not merely my opinion, beloved, it is everyone's." (Radice 116). I wouldn't agree with Heloise here. Abelard was mostly attracted to her because of her knowledge and because of her gift of writing letters. Also he worried about her as much as he was concerned about himself and his career. He agreed to marry Heloise even though it would put his career and reputation in danger. Also at one time he says "all our laments were for one another's troubles and our distress for each other, not for ourselves." (Radice 69). I don't think this would fall under lust because if he had only desired sex then he wouldn't have cared for her the way he did. Abelard and Heloise's relationship was based on courtly love of their time and also I believe that their love was the creation of modern ideal of marriage which was founded on the voluntarily shared tenderness of a couple who shelter each other from the harshly competitive world, just like today's.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Sistine Chapel Essays - Book Of Genesis, Bereshit, Adam And Eve Sistine Chapel The Presence of God Michelangelo's paintings on the Sistine Chapel contain a strong presence of God. The ideas and stories of the Bible lie at the surface of the entire ceiling. All these stories are taking from the book of Genesis, which would not be possible without God. The scenes depicted are placed in a time frame of an earlier world. This period is called ante legem, and is the period before the Mosaic Law. The scenes can be analyzed in numerous ways that depend on the analyzers faith and interpretation of the beginning of time. The chapel contains nine stories divided into three trilogies: The Creation of the World, the Creation of Man, and the Story of Noah. All of these stories have a strong Godly presence, as the viewer sees the creation, progression, and, eventual, fall of man. The idea of God evolves from panel to panel by allowing the onlooker to consider God in three different situations forcing his role to change throughout each. The establishment of the vision of diverse, yet related sym bols of biblical foundations presents a sense of the supernatural and divine world. The stories embody separate motifs; but, the piece is expressed as a unified whole with God being the only consistent presence in either idea or visual portrayal. The order of the ceiling, according to the book of Genesis, should be read from the Separation of Light from Darkness to the Drunkenness of Noah, if the viewer reads in chronological order. The Creation of the World is the first out of the three trilogies. This focuses on the emergence of God's presence, arising from his creation of the earth and the cosmic environment. the Separation of Light from Darkness exemplifies the physicality of God in the beginning of his worldly universe. And God said, Let there be light, and there was light... and God divided the light from the darkness1 This story is depicted in this scene, where Michelangelo shows God whirling in a spinning motion. The shading and use of light and dark creates a feeling of the light and dark in the midst of division. God furthers his role as worldly creator in the Creation of Sun , Moon, and Planets by making two great lights; the greater light to rule the day; and the lesser one to rule the night2. God appears to be in circular motion once again; but, in this instance, he seems as if he is circulating the newly created universe. He is, at first, transpiring from the universe, and then, turns his back to the viewer to concentrate on a new object in process of establishment. The final story of the origin of the world is the Separation of Land from Water. God is perceived as an ominous being, flying above the sea, and reaching out to the heavens. He appears to be extending his arms outward to a nonexistent boundary, as if he was luring the land out of the sea. Michelangelo, in the Creation of the World, demonstrates God's limitless power by illusions of movement. The arm position, the masterful flying, and the seemingly face paced motion persuades the viewer to see a universal creator, above all fathomable beings. God appears to be traveling through all earthly dimensions, as if forcing the creation on the undeveloped world before him. The second role of God is the Creator of Man. This section is in the center of the Sistine Chapel promoting the most concentration. This is undoubtedly strategically placed, for the importance of God's role to the God creates man to rule his last creation of the universe. This section tells the story from the creation of the primarily pure to the emergence of a sinful world. The Creation of Adam delineates God giving life to Adam. This scene encompasses an intense feeling because of the naturalistic connection between Adam and God. The body language and the positioning show the events in the story. The touching fingers give a sense of the intense power traveling from God and being transported to the fingertips of Adam. Michelangelo painted this scene with a definite basis of the bible's description, so that the viewer can actually see that God
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
COMMUNITY PROJECT ABOUT HIV - Essay Example However, scientists are working extra hard to find a cure. The enormity of the effects of HIV/AIDS attests to the fact that it continues to be a huge global health and social problem. According to the UNAIDSÃ¢â¬â¢s World AIDS Day Report of 2011, about 34 million people had HIV, indicating a growth of up to 17 percent since 2001. In 2010 alone, the UNAIDS reported that new infections stood at 2.7 million people. Besides being a health issue, HIV/AIDS is a huge social, cultural and development problem, which is spreading rather fast among women, young people and working-age adults. Thus, HIV/AIDS negatively impinges on the economy, society, family and schooling in a country hence, weakening the entire world. Whenever a portion of the population contracts HIV/AIDS, the economical growth and status of the world is negatively affected. The scourge thus reduces the labour force while demands on already overwhelmed governments and economic and health care systems increase (Gardner et al., 2013). The other reasons HIV/AIDS is particularly a big problem in poor and vulnerable countries and communities are lack of resources to treat and help HIV/AIDS patients, overburdened health care systems, expensive and inaccessible HIV/AIDS medication, and cost of HIV/AID treatment compares unfavorably with the GDP of most poor countries (Gardner et al., 2013). Resources for campaigning and educating the public on HIV/AIDS and on risky behaviors are also scarce. Finally, many people and societies are quite reluctant to discuss risky behaviors and HIV/AIDS, which are considered taboos in certain communities. Citizens, corporate organizations, local and state governments, NGOs, and the international community should thus combine effort to thwart the scourge. Through this project, stakeholders will create HIV/AIDS treatment and response health policies, expand care and treatment, improve teacher training, AIDS education, and social programs, protect children, and do further research on HIV/AIDS an its effects (Gardner et al., 2013). HIV/AIDS Statistics for Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County, also referred to as theÃ Greater Miami is situated in the southeastern portions ofÃ Florida. Dade is the most populous county in Florida with the population standing at 2,496,435 as of the 2010 census. In fact, it is the seventh most populous county in the U.S. With a land area of 1,946 square miles (5,040Ã km2), Dade has the third largest land area in Florida and has an estimated half of theÃ Miami metropolitan area's population and several of FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest cities. With 35 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas, many parts of the northern, central and eastern regions of the county are heavilyÃ urbanized.Ã Agricultural land constitutes nearly a third of Miami-Dade County's inhabited land area. Unlike the densely populated urban areas in the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s northern sections, the agricultural areas are sparsely populated. According to the U .S. Census BureauÃ¢â¬â¢s 2012 Ethnic/Race Demographics, White Americans constitute aboutÃ 77.6% out of whom16.3% are Non-Hispanic Whites. On the other hand, African Americans constitute 19.2%, Asian: 1.7%,1.2%, American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.3%, Hispanics or LatinosÃ of any race: 64.3%, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander:Ã 0.0%. A county-by-county analysis of the FloridaCharts.com reveals that Broward,
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
USA nursing school curriculum - Research Paper Example The paper tells that nursing education and hence the curriculum of courses providing the courses on nursing have been found to have modified to great extents over the years. In the present times, the courses for nursing education include advanced techniques and measures with purposes of better preparation. Nurses in collaboration with other health officials are now found taking part in this mission. In the United States, the nursing education in different institutions, colleges or universities are accompanied through several opportunities related to the nursing profession. For example, special lectures arranged by leaders in the field of nursing are provided for the nursing students. Also, different associations related to the nursing and health care take part in the educational programs thus enhancing the effects of the courses. US present a picture of advancement and development in the field of nursing education and provide the international students with indefinite opportunities a nd facilities. While students from the home country as well as from abroad come together in the learning process, there is always a mutual learning that occurs between the students. For the particular study, the nursing curriculum of the University of South Carolina has been considered. The College of Nursing in South Carolina under the University of South Carolina follows a nursing curriculum that provides interested candidates with several courses including the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing Science, Doctor of Nursing Practice, and the Master of Science in Nursing degrees. ... ng (BSN Program Information, n.d.), the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing Science, Doctor of Nursing Practice, and the Master of Science in Nursing degrees (Graduate Program Information, n.d.). The BSN program as provided by the university is a four-year undergraduate program that combines the studies of the professional course and the knowledge of liberal arts. In it the general knowledge associated with english, chemistry, statistics, biology, psychology, sociology and other elective papers are included. Students completing the undergraduate program are eligible to take the licensure examination that is National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). On clearing this examination, the nursing candidate can initiate her career in the profession of nursing (BSN Program Information, n.d.). Masters and Dual Masters courses are also offered under the nursing curriculum in the South Carolina College of Nursing. The Doctorate course combines nine courses related to t he development of nursing theory, research and statistics (Graduate Program Information, n.d.). The Nursing Curriculum in USC and Its Success: Assessment and Analysis: Considering the needs and demands of the nursing candidates, and their growing interests in the field, it can be realized that the Bachelor of Science in Nursing proves to be an efficient course successfully preparing students to be able to perform in health organizations. In general the BSN program takes around four years to complete (Nursing, 2012). The college of Nursing under the South Carolina University was incepted in the year 1940 and accredited in 1957. Studies reveal that since then more than 6000 nursing students have completed their nursing courses from the university and started their career in the nursing
Monday, January 27, 2020
Evaluating a Health Promotion Website: Smoking Cessation Introduction: For the purpose of this assignment and based on the webquest, I have chosen Essay 2, evaluating a health promotion website. The current health promotion topic I have selected is smoking cessation. The National Health Service (NHS) has set up a Ã¢â¬Å"Go SmokefreeÃ¢â¬ Services and a NHS smoking helpline plus a website offering free advice on stopping smoking and details of your local NHS Stop Smoking Services (NICE 2006). The rationale for this choice is that having completed a placement on a respiratory ward caring for patients with many smoking related diseases, it is important for me as an adult branch nurse to discuss health promotion issues, and to be up to date with current information in order to help educate people and allow them to make informed choices regarding their health, especially the health benefits of stopping smoking. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC 2008) states that it is important for nurses to ensure that any advice or information given to patients is evidence based. Smoking is a long established health hazard and it is the largest avoidable cause of premature deaths in the UK (DOH 2007). It affects almost all branches of nursing because of the wide range of diseases and conditions which it causes. All types of health problems are linked to breathing in second hand smoke, so smokers risk the health of others as well as their own. Almost everyone knows that smoking is bad for their health but despite graphic images of blackened lungs and cancerous growths in doctors waiting rooms and on cigarette packets people start smoking or continue to smoke. In order to evaluate the information from my chosen website I will be using a framework (Kapoun 1998). The reason for using this framework is because his approach supports the assignment guidelines, which include; an overview of the website; the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility; content accuracy; content objectivity or bias; and the currency of the content. Accuracy: Having decided on the subject, smoking cessation I searched the World Wide Web, using the Google search engine using the criteria. I typed in current health promotions smoking, UK search only. This displayed 240,000 results, the number one return was www.nhs.uk/smokefree and I decided to use this one. The page is produced by the NHS and has no individual author. The website contains facilities for e-mail should you encounter any difficulties with using the website, and a direct contact telephone number for help and advice. The purpose of the document and the reason for its production (Kapoun 1998) is to provide information on the benefits of stopping smoking; it achieves this by offering advice online, and a facility to download inspirational DVDs and stop smoking guides. The website is aimed at providing information for all age groups and sections of the smoking population, with information and support networks available in many languages and formats including Braille. The website a lso provides many facilities for health care professionals to order various support materials like leaflets. In distinguishing between the author and the webmaster (Kapoun 1998) the author of the site who produces the content of the web page is the NHS, but the site webmaster who maintains the website is not shown as a separate body. The NHS as the major health care provider in the UK is more than qualified to write this document (Kapoun 1998) as they have access to all departments of health information and resources, plus government statistics and strategies. Authority: As discussed in the previous subheading the website publisher is not shown separately from the webmaster, but the copyright is held by the Department of Health (DOH 2007) for which no address is shown. The URL address is www.smokefree.nhs.uk and the domain is www.nhs.uk which clearly shows the document is published in the United Kingdom. The publisher does not list any qualifications but the pre-eminence of the NHS would lend authority to the document. Objectivity: The website does achieve its goals (Kapoun 1998). It achieves its objectives by making available information on the benefits of stopping smoking, the health risks and financial costs of continuing to smoke. For example the online calculator shows that the cost of smoking 40 cigarettes per day is Ã £300 per month, or Ã £37,000 over the next twenty years. The information is very detailed and explained in ordinary non-medical terms, making it easily readable for the average person. The website was obviously non-commercial, there was no external advertising, and the motives of the website were very clearly aimed only at dissuading people from starting to smoking and persuading them to stop. I feel that the NHS website was an excellent source of information; it had links to the national statistics website and links to the DOH website which clearly stated that it was a department of the government with ministerial responsibility, which clearly adds to its authority (Kapoun 1998). It had content for the layman seeking assistance to stop smoking, through to professionals, planning local and regional smoking cessation initiatives. In my opinion this website gave an objective point of view, because it presented the facts, the options, costs, the health risks and benefits without being judgemental, or biased against the smoking minority. By comparison, the Action on Smoking and Health (Ash) website presented its information in a more opinionated manner, the website had the feel of a crusade about it, rather than persuasion and offering information and support, it seemed to portray smokers as victims of the tobacco industry incapable of free choice. The website gives information on stopping smoking, and the benefits and aids to quitting, but the website feels like an anti-tobacco company campaign rather than a website promoting the benefits of stopping smoking. The website did not seem objective, as it presented its information and statistics in a more judgemental and bi ased manner. The contents of this website whilst containing information on ceasing smoking and the benefits of ceasing smoking appeared mainly political with a motive of banning the sale of tobacco. I feel that this website had a totally negative approach to dissuading smokers, and more of a dictatorial outlook. In further comparison the Nicorette.co.uk appeared factual in as much as it offered similar statistics as the NHS website but in a much simpler format. The information was easy to read, but it was aimed only at the general smoking public. Although it gives you the possible health benefits, and the costs of smoking which are in agreement with the NHS website, it is clearly a commercial website, promoting its own nicotine replacement therapies, although they do state on all their web pages, that stopping smoking Ã¢â¬Å"does require willpowerÃ¢â¬ , which would infer that the products advertised are only an aid and not a cure. Unlike (ASH) the content of the website does not c riticise smokers or the tobacco companies, however as a commercial entity, it would not be in their commercial interest if tobacco was banned which may show an unspoken bias in favour of tobacco. Currency: The website appears to be up to date as it was set up at the start of the NHS Ã¢â¬Å"smokefreeÃ¢â¬ campaign in 2007, although no specific update information available. All of the links were working and appeared to be updated regularly, as there was information on all current campaigns for February 2009 (Kapoun 1998). A current campaign dated 2nd February 2009 is designed to make the consequences of smoking during pregnancy more personal by explaining how smoking deprives the baby of oxygen and causes the babies heart to beat faster (DOH 2008). Coverage: The website appears to be almost completely self contained with very few external links (Kapoun 1998). The whole document appears to be very well balanced with images, videos text and graphics. For example, several television celebrities after being given advice and support from local NHS stop smoking advisers have recorded video diaries of their personal experiences of stopping smoking, which are available to view online, or you can also order a DVD free of charge. There is no special software requirements needed to view the information on the website, no browser recommendations are given, nor are there any fees payable to use the website, plus all downloads and promotional material is free (Kapoun 1998). There are accessibility options of large text for people who are visually impaired. The information on the website is mainly in the public domain, meaning there is no copyright, and no citations are shown. Conclusion: First impressions of the website were very positive and this carried on through as I read the material and followed the links. The website is well presented and all the links worked, the website was easy to use, interesting and catchy. There is a wealth of information on the effects of smoking, social effects (stains your teeth and clothes smell), the effects on other peoples health (second hand smoke), the financial costs (to the smoker) and not least the huge negative effects on the smokerÃ¢â¬â¢s health. The website equally promoted the enormous benefits to be gained by stopping smoking, even after many years of smoking. All information downloads, and promotional material is free. There are telephones lines for help and advice; addresses for regional centres were also available. I thought the website would be of great assistance to many people who genuinely wanted to quit smoking, the support and advice offered was very comprehensive, and also had facilities for health care profe ssionals, service providers and employers on how to refer smokers to NHS services, support smokers in stopping, and plan the delivery of smoking cessation services (NICE 2008). The website policy and privacy guidelines were difficult to find via the page links, but they could be found easily by using the search facility, if you could find the correct keywords. In my opinion the information was accurate, reliable, and the source, Department of Health (DOH), which is a Government Ministry, is trustworthy. On writing this assignment I have improved my knowledge and understanding regarding website evaluation. As a student nurse, and to offer evidence based health promotional information to patients, I realise how important it is to research the information, making sure it is current, checking how often it is updated, how reliable the information is, does it come from a credible source, can the reader trust the information (Kapoun 1998). I will take with me into future practice the knowledge that, before I provide any information to patients, it has been critically evaluated, in order for them to make informed choices regarding their health care. Reference List. ASH (2007) Essential information on stopping Smoking. [Online]. Available at http://www.ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_116.pdf [Accessed on 11th March 2009]. Department of Health (DOH) (2007) [online]. Available at http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publichealth/Healthimprovement/Tobacco/index.htm [Accessed on 28th February 2009]. Department of Health (DOH) (2008) [Online]. Available at http://smokefree.nhs.uk/smoking-and-pregnancy/ [Accessed on 28th February 2009]. Kapoun, J. (1998) Teaching Undergraduates WEB Evaluation. College and Research Libraries News. July/August 1998. p 522-523. Nice (2006) Brief Interventions and Referral for Smoking Cessation in Primary Care and other Settings. [Online]. Available at http://www.gpiag.org/news/smokingcessation/nice_smoking_interventions_quick_reference.pdf [Accessed on 28th February 2009]. Nice (2008) Smoking Cessation Services. [Online]. Available at http://www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/PH10 [Accessed on 28th February 2009]. Nicorette (2009). Stop Smoking Now. [Online]. Available at www.nicorette.co.uk [Accessed on 10 March 2009]. Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) The Code. London: NMC. The National Health Service (NHS) (2007) Ã¢â¬Å"Go SmokefreeÃ¢â¬ . [Online]. Available at www.smokefree.nhs.uk [Accessed on 27th February 2009].
Saturday, January 18, 2020
If a company experiences a huge crisis, there is no shortcut: the companies will definitely suffer and without elaborate strategies, and the company might never be the same again. The point of debate holds that instead of responding to a crisis as a defeat, the company should recognize the fact that it is another opportunity window and find the best approach out of the crisis, essentially, with its brand image and reputation intact. In reference to Weiss (2009), possessing knowledge of communicating with the company stakeholders could produce major significance for a corporation during crisis irrespective of the severity of the situation. The organizations managing crisis may disregard the power of social media culture that is always very influential. Social media can be addressed both outside and within the organization. Bell, (2010) refers to media culture as crossing boundaries. Therefore, the plans for crisis communication should account for the variables of social media culture. The inclined era of globalization, the world is becoming more connected, and organizations venture into new environments. The hotly contested topic of communication crisis is naturally cross-social media culture and requires attention as part of organizational growth and development.Social media are currently bridging a major headache to the corporate world since it has proved the ability of showing and spreading news. In the previous years, the elite journalist could assist in breaking bad news. However, currently anyone can break bad news and spread it in the social media. From the corporate point of view, the decisions of generating bad news form the company instantly signifies crisis that leads to the negative impact on brand, sales, and word of advertisements. Globalization has resulted into the era of social media. Previously, companies would respond to bad news by releasing public apologies or position statements using the traditional media within a period of few days. This is no longer the case today. The public is constantly scrutinizing the corporate world and expects the company to release prompt apology within the shortest time possible directly using the social media. This has led to a great interest from the companies to establish the manner in which bad news speedily spreads in the social media. Their major concerns are establishing the feeling of the public and propaganda that influences the public sentiments. The efforts of public relations convey the values, perspectives and norms of organizations that function together to unify the organization (Bell, 2010). A crisis can occur anytime anywhere. It may incorporate complications within any number of cultures or involve conflicts within a single culture. Bell further indicates that perceptions can get swayed with sound organization insight and adequate planning. The organization should adopt a plan that addresses current and future issues, however, in some circumstances, such plans can prove to be an invaluable tool in times of crisis in the organization. The global practitioners of public relations must offer their collaboration strategies with stakeholders to assist in pooling ideas, resources, and strategies together that gets dispersed in dissimilar ways worldwide. This proposal case study investigates the strategies on one of the first companies to experience a global serious brand reputation due to spread of bad new in the social med ia. Particularly, this research proposal investigates DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s PizzaÃ¢â¬â¢s crisis management strategies. The proposal analyzes previous studies as a source of secondary data to that would offer a comparison with this study. Background of the Study/ DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s PizzaÃ¢â¬â¢s Communication Strategy Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As of 1997, DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s Pizza was the largest company delivering pizza in the world. Besides, it was the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second-largest pizza chain. The company had 4, 431 delivery stores for pizza in the United States. Additionally, the company had more than 1, 521 units in 59 foreign investments by the end of 1997(Peeples & Vaughn, 2010). The sales of the company were worth $3.16 billion providing it with the place as 200th largest private company on the Forbes private list of 500 companies. The company sells multiple products including pan, deep-dish and thin crust pizzas. Despite the excellent international recognition and robust wealth, the company experienced a crisis that made it a historic area of studies within the public relations and communication DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s. The crisis of DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s pizza began when two company employees produced and uploaded a vulgar video in YouTube in 2009. The video shown the two employees engaging in a number of health law violations, particularly, blowing mucous on sandwich, putting cheese on the nose, and putting a sponge that is meant to wash dishes between the buttocks. Within limited time, the video popularized and gained viral publicity with more than half a million views and the major news media covering the event (Peeples & Vaughn, 2010). It followed that the public joined the discourse and started discussing the video via social media.Weiss, (2009) reports that most of the video discussions took place on Twitter, and investigative research accounts that nearly 15, 000 subscribers of Twitter provided their opinion on the event. The company responded by sharing an apology on Twitter by sharing the chief executive officer apology on YouTube. The response from Dominos was too late, approximately 48 hours after the event, according to (Aula, 2011). The video got posted on a Monday night, and the company responded on Wednesday. Despite the quick efforts from the internal teamwork to form a strategy on Tuesday, the initial intentions of the company were trying not to, because it wanted to restrict further public knowledge on the video. The company failed to issue formal press release to the mainstream press and went against the idea of hiring the external crisis management experts to solve the crisis creatively. However, investigations show that it opened a twitter account to tackle the inquiries from the consumers. Thereafter, the company reached a decision to issue a YouTube apology to quell the already intensified public relations nightmare that was played in t multiple media mainstreams. The crisis caused dire consequences for the company. A study however reveals that crisis communication researchers have not validated such case studies using a systematic analysis on public sentiments on social media (HCD Research, 2009). Literature Review/ Previous Research Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This section presents the research done on the effects of crisis management case studies. The section provides an empirical review of both academic and scholarly data obtained from previous studies. The scholarly work presented in this chapter will provide the basis for analysis that will ultimately assist in answering the research question. The main literature reviews the previous works on strategies of crisis management case study, particularly the case of DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s Pizza crisis management. The review adopts a communication and mass media approach to providing analysis of effectiveness public relations in the same context. The literature analysis uses theory us and sub-theories to increase the understanding of the social media industry the proposal will investigate and provide and comprehend a holistic picture of the phenomena.Schiller, (2007) reports on the research on communication crisis literature base on the mechanisms that should be employed by the organizations to manage the crisis and based on the four requirements adopted through research validations. According to the study, the four requirements of crisis response management highlights that the company should be quick to respond in the shortest time possible, be accurate and provide an empirical analysis of the facts with absolute care. Additionally, response to a communication crisis requires companies to avoid saying no comments and be consistent and avoid statement contradictions to the company stakeholders. As outlined by Coombs (2008), the content research put emphasis on more resolves and strategy around the crisis messages that should be communicated to the shareholders. Research on crisis communication has previously focused on managing the reactions of the stakeholders to a crisis. The scholars have put more concentration on the actions and words used to respond to a crisis. Particularly, the researchers have broken the strategies into three categories. Th ese are instructing information, reputation repair and adjusting information.Coombs, (2008) asserts that instructing information provides informational power to the shareholders the degree of physical preparation in the event a crisis emerges. Particularly, this means the application of warning signals that is usually coupled with instructions. Adjusting the information significantly helps the industry stakeholders to develop a coping psychological strategy with the crisis. The repair of reputation entails all the measures put by the organization to repair or protect the perception of the stakeholders towards the organization. The recent strategy by Dominos Pizza to market itself with sole intentions of improving is empirical for this proposal in terms of repair of reputation. According to Schiller (2007), the organization admitted that they had manufactured an inferior product but offered assurance on quality improvement. This is an attempt by the organization to repair the reputat ion. Researchers agree that the core factors intertwined in an organizational crisis including urgency, unpredictability, significant threats. The researchers further assert that the public is often unwilling to engage in social media discussions when an event is unexpected or important. The immediate principle of communication crisis management is to tell the truth. The company should face the public and provide the real issue behind the crisis. In the situations of crisis, social constructions and multiple truths of events simultaneously seek public attention. The company, customers and the employees and the media are the key stakeholders for crisis management. Claeys and Cauberghe, (2012) references that the case of Domino Pizza in particular had watchdog organizations such as Consumerist.com and GoodAsYou.org that were constructing the event versions. As established the research article, the truth that Tim McIntyre, the company communication vice president intended to convey was that the event was stage managed and it was a rogue act of two employees who though they were creating fun and that they did not present the brand of Domino Pizza. Likewise, they outlined that the two employees were not the representative of the 10, 000 individuals that tirelessly work fo r the company across the globe (Aula, 2011). Furthermore, the study reveals that the truth that Patrick Doyle had intentions of articulating was that the company did not do the act and that they were sorry for the rogue event. Therefore, the company moved forward to restore their reputation as an attempt to respond to the crisis. A research that studied the case of Domino Pizza identified two types of tweets contents. Likewise, Young and Flowers (2012) write that they were fact and opinions. The tweets on facts had no sentiments, however, just stated the event. The category incorporated more links without any text, simple link introductions or links with the same headline of the website linked. On the other hand, the opinion category had tweets that were either positive or negative sentiments. But, based on the incident the nature, most of the tweets were negative. Therefore, the company adopted an apology strategy to solve the crisis. Discussions from the research outline that the officialsÃ¢â¬â¢ corporate apology dropped the level of negative sentiments from 82.8 percent to 54.6 percent. Still, the level of positive sentiments increased mysteriously from 06 percent to 5.5 percent. Claeys and Cauberghe, (2012) reinforces that crisis communication management practice in situations where companies provides p ublic apology, they do not develop high or sudden increase of praise. Rather, they expect the negative sentiments from the public to become more rational because of the apology and calm down sequentially. The analysis of Domino Pizza confirms the expectations. Peeples and Vaughn, (2010) adds that the number of factual tweets significantly inclined from 16.7 percent to 39.9 percent. Therefore, the case of Domino Pizza public apology calmed and reduced the amount of negative opinions and increased positive and facts in the Twitter conversations. A study by Coombs, (2008) concludes that the best and the only approach to reduce the social media impact on the crisis are to integrate the social media into the crisis communication strategies and provide a dialogue monitoring on the social media. Claeys et.al (2012) harmonizes the fact that the brads that have the best public perception will be the one that will apply the online tools as their potential customers. Likewise, Young and Flowers (2012) evaluated and concluded that the effective leverage of the social media by Dominos was identical to the style used by the pranksters. That is, to transparently communicate the efforts of the company to solve the crisis. Finally, the company emerged from the viral media criticizes and still knowledgeable on the real face of crisis communication strategies in the practical age of social media. Peeples et.al (2010) asserts that the incident of Domino Pizza was a practical implication for crisis managers in the globalized business world. He puts that once a company experiences a crisis of bad news to the social media; they should respond with a quick reaction, apology and admit the mistakes appropriately. A study by Coombs, (2008) confirmed the positive effects of corporate apologies to the public in social media, YouTube and Twitter both in Korea and the U.S. secondly, the companies should engage in conversations with the social media during the official times and not just after a crisis hits the company. Lastly, based on the speed at which social media news spread, the company should be ready to respond within hours after the event, rather than within days. Research Questions Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã By conducting an empirical analysis to the sentiments of the public in social media based on the crisis of Domino Pizza, the study will attempt to answer the following questions:1. How does the structure of the network determine the effectiveness of communication crisis solution strategy? 2. How can the company strategize to reduce the negative sentiments and increase positive sentiments of social media? 3. What are the temporal and spatial characteristics of diffusion influences strategic solutions of communication crisis in the corporate bad news? Methodology Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This chapter provides a description of scope and methodology of this proposal. This chapter examines the scope of the research proposal and builds understanding of the research source of primary data and why the data will be adopted for the study. Likewise, the chapter will provide information of the sample data and method of collecting the data for the research study. The proposal methodology provides empirical explanations on how and why the study will employ a quantitative survey to answer the research questions. Furthermore, the methodology explanations provide a systemic approach to analysis of findings, conclusion and the implication sections that will be presented in the final stage of the research. The scope of the study focuses on strategies for managing communication crisis with reference to the strategies employed by Domino Pizza. The goal will be based on the strategies that were used by the company to solve the communication crisis on the bas is of social media.The research will conduct a sample survey of various primary sources of information fro the analysis. First, the research will use online survey on the company website and corporate reports to establish the primary data. It is essential to note that online survey of data collection will be instrumental for the research provided the time and financial constraints attached to the study/. This proposal provides that the company website will provide primary data that would be reputable and enhance empirical analysis. Corporate reports on the strategies used by the company to manage the crisis will also provide primary information that will be significant for cross analysis. To establish the validity of the data collected, this section will provide data for cross comparison with the previous research that has been conducted in the same topic.Furthermore, this proposal will use live interviews from the professionals and officials from the company to provide primary data for analysis. Corbin and Strauss, (1998) explains that live interviews and phone interviews are a technology facilitated method of collecting data for analysis. It is based on the premise that recorded live interviews from the company officials, and professionals such as crisis managers that reacted to the incident through an interview in the social media cannot be distorted. This is a cheap method of collecting primary data using the technological advantages. The professional and company official interview records are present and easily accessible within the website of the company and other websites of the social media archives. Close examination of the URLs that the public used to post their comments and the company used to engage the customers will also be audited. The approach of auditing the URLs used by the company and its stakeholders will provide the direct reaction from the company that will primarily constitute the raw data for the analysis. Auditing to the URL postings w ill also provide statistical information of the percentages of the tweets, both positive and negative that came from the public. Likewise, statistical information will be computed based on the finding of the nature of public reaction after the response from the company and before the response from company officials. This will show the effectiveness or the ineffectiveness of the approach the company developed to restore their reputation and brand (Corbin and Strauss, 1998). Finally, the primary data that will be collected will provide evidential information on the strategies employed by Domino Pizza in curbing the communication crisis. References Aula, P. (2011). Meshworked reputation: PublicistsÃ¢â¬â¢ views on the reputational impacts of online communication. Public Relations Review, 37, 28-36. Bell, L. M. (2010). Crisis communication: The praxis of response. The Review of Communication, 10(2), 142-155. Claeys, A., & Cauberghe, V. (2012). Crisis response and crisis timing strategies, two sides of the same coin. Public Relations Review, 38, 83-88. Coombs, W. T. (2008, April 2). Crisis communication and social media. Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/crisis-communication-and-social-media/ Coombs, W.T. (2008). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (1998). Basics of Qualitative ResearchÃ¢â¬Å¸, 3Ed, Sage Publications, Inc.HCD Research .(2009). DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s Brand Takes a Hit after YouTubeÃ¢â¬Å"PrankÃ¢â¬ Video.http://tinyurl.com/d4e47h Peeples, A. & Vaughn, C. (2010). DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"specialÃ¢â¬ delivery: Going viral through social media (Parts A & B). Arthur W. Page Society case study competition in corporate communications. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.awpagesociety.com/insights/winning-case-studies/2010 Schiller, M. (2007, March 5). Crisis and the web: How to leverage the Internet when a brand takes a hit. Adweek, 48(10), 16.Weiss, T. (2009, April 22). Crisis managementÃ¢â¬âDominoÃ¢â¬â¢s case study research. Trendsspotting Blog. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.trendsspotting.com/blog/?p=1061 Young, C. l., & Flowers, A. (2012). Fight viral with viral: A Case Study of DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s PizzaÃ¢â¬â¢s Crisis Communication Strategies. Case studies in strategic communication, 1, article 6. Source document
Friday, January 10, 2020
Every 22nd of April, the world celebrates Earth Day, where the importance of environmentalism given emphasis. What was once an ideology is now a social movement, with major corporations joining in the campaign to preserve the environment. In the US, the road to environmental movement started as early as the 1960s but only reached extensive recognition in the 70s. In 1962, Rachel Carson, a biologist, wrote a book entitled Silent Spring, which exposed the threats brought on by the use of pesticides (Brinkley 875). She wrote that it was the first time that human beings were being subjected to Ã¢â¬Å"dangerous chemicalsÃ¢â¬ and called on the government to act on it (LaFeber et al 547). But it was not only Carson who opened the door for environmental movement. Following the war, the drastic effect on the environment was starting to put people in a crisis. Water pollution was spreading; toxic fumes from factories and power plants had started to infiltrate the water and the atmosphere (Brinkley 876-877). In Ohio, for example, the Cuyahoga River had Ã¢â¬Å"burst into flamesÃ¢â¬ following constant dumping of petroleum waste into it (877). The word Ã¢â¬Å"smogÃ¢â¬ was created to refer to the combination of smoke and fog which relentlessly plagued the people living in cities (877). Environmental destruction had started. The realization made people become aware of the possible damages it could inflict not just on the people but also on their surroundings. In fact, as early as 1950s, the Sierra Club, a traditional conservation organization, had contested the proposal to dam the Green River in Colorado (Glen Canyon Institute 2008). Sierra Club deemed the proposal as Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most regretted environmental mistakeÃ¢â¬ (2008). The group sought to stop it but was in vain. The Glen Canyon damming opened the waters (put intended) for the environmental movement that when proposals for damming Marble and Grand Canyon were put forward, the Sierra Club staged not just protests but also placed advertisement in the New York Times to stop it. In a way, the Colorado incident put forth the rising environmental movement. It triggered the concern for environmental conservation and preservation. Among the environmental problems which people hoped to address were the aforementioned water problem, ozone layer, greenhouse effect, nuclear power and the escalating amount of garbage (Divine et al 870-871). For instance, studies in the 70s revealed the effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) to the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s ozone layer (870). Scientists also discovered that smoke and other toxic fumes contributed to the formation of acid rain, which was dangerous not only to forests but the aquamarine (870). Only April 1970 the first Earth Day was celebrated in campuses, the start of what was to be a campaign to expand the threats of toxic wastes to the environment (LaFeber 547). Earth Day was the idea of Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin who initially thought of conducting a series of talks around campus (Brinkley 878). Compared to the antiwar rallies that as common during these days, the Earth Day demonstration had an Ã¢â¬Å"unthreateningÃ¢â¬ aura that made it interesting to people. During President NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s first term, the Congress passed the National Environmental Policy Act and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (Brinkley 878). Laws were also created to regulate environmental hazards, preserve endangered species and protect wilderness areas (LaFeber 547). The Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act were passed in 1972 (Brinkley 878). The support of government in environmentalism made it easier to somehow alleviate environmental degradation brought on by pollution and the advancing industrial society. However, during the Reagan administration, federal cuts were made in favor of promoting private enterprises (547). Reagan also hoped to abolish the Council on Environmental Quality and cut funds for the Environmental Protection Agency (547). However, his anti-environmental revolution only made the environmental movement stronger. Environmental groups saw rise in its members.